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Elements of Poetry in the Mahabharata
Elements of Poetry in the Mahabharata

Elements of Poetry in the Mahabharata

by Ram Karan Sharma

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Product ID:28447

Language

English

Publisher

Motilal Banarsidass

ISBN

9788120805446 - Year: 1988 - Pages: 180

Binding

Paperback

Ram Karan Sharma
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Author: Ram Karan Sharma
Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass
Year: 1988
Language: English
Pages: 180
ISBN/UPC (if available): 9788120805446

Description

This book represents the first attempt of its kind to present a detailed, systematic analysis of the upamana dharmas (Tertia comparationis) of the various objects of comparison found in the Mahabharata.

It also critically examines the position of the Great Epic as a fascinating specimen of Oral poetic composition abounding, as it does, in the repetitions of the poetic formulae of the various categories.

A study of some of the major figures of speech also provides an authoritative material Useful for further research of the evolution of Tertia comparationis in the successive stages of Indian literary tradition.

Contents

Introduction

I. SIMILE (UPAMA) :
1. The Gods (Deva) :
i. The Gods in General
ii. Indri
iii. Siva
iv. Visnu
v. Brahma
vi. The Asvins
vii. Savitr
viii. Mitravaruna
ix. Kubera
x. Karti-keya
xi. Kama
xii. Yama

2. The Goddesses (Devi) :
i. Aditi
ii. Uma
iii. Sri
iv. Rati
v. Kimnari and Apsaras

3. Sacrificial Objects (Yajna)
4. Fire (Agni)
5. Sun (Surya)
6. Moon (Candra)
7. Planets (Graha) :
i. Planets in General
ii. Specific Planets :
a. Mars and Mercury (Mangala-Budha)
b. Venus (Sukra)
c. Venus and Mars (Sukra-Mangala)
d. Mercury and Venus (Budha-Sukra)
e. Saturn (Sanaiscara)
f. Mercury and Saturn (Budha-Sanaiscara)

8. Comet (Dhumaketu)
9. Constellation and Stars (Naksatra, Tara)
10. The Earth (Prthivi)
11. Sky (Akasa)
12. Cloud (Megha)
13. Lightning (Vidyut)
14. The Wind (Vayu)
15. Ocean (Samudra)
16. Lake (Saras)
17. River (Nadi)
18. Well, Water (Udapana, Jala)
19. Mountain (Parvata)
20. Cattle : Cow, Bull, Ox (Go)
21. Horses (Asva)
22. Elephant (Gaja)
23. Lion (Simha)
24. Tiger (Vyaghra)
25. Snake (Sarpa)
26. Other Animals :
i. Monkey (Vanara)
ii. Camel (Ustra)
iii. Domestic Animals (Pasu)
iv. Wolf (Vrka)
v. Boar (Sukara)
vi. Jackal (Krostuka)
vii. Deer (Mrga)
viii. Dog (Sva)
ix. Porcupine (Salyaka)
x. Rabbit (Sasa)
xi. Frog (Manduka)
xii. Mouse (Indura)
xiii. Tortoise (Kurma)
xiv. Conchshells (Sankha)
xv. Female crab (Karkataki)

27. Birds (Paksin) :
i. Birds in General
ii. Garuda
iii. Swan (Hamsa)
iv. Osprey (Kurari)
v. Peacock (Mayura)
vi. Cuckoo (Pumskokila)
vii. Eagle (Syena)
viii. Curlew (Kraunca)
ix. Crane (Baka)
x. Cakravaka
xi. Crow (Kaka)
xii. Partridge (Tittiri)

28. Insects :
i. Moth (Salabha)
ii. Bee (Bhramara)

29. Forest (Vana)
30. Trees and Plants :
i. The tree in General
ii. Butea Frondosa (Kimsuka)
iii. Palmyra Palm (Tala)
iv. Sal tree, Shorea Robusta (Sala)
v. Bamboo (Vamsa)
vi. Asoka Tree
vii. Plantain Tree (Kadali)
viii. Mango (Cuta)
ix. Silk-cotton Tree (Salmali)
x. Pipal Tree, Ficus Religiosa (Asvattha)
xi. Reed, Amphidinax Karka (Nala)
xii. Creeper (Lata)
xiii. Soma and Putika
xiv. Flowers (Puspa)
xv. Fruit (Phala
xvi. Sesamum Indicum (Tila)
xvii. Black Gram (Masa)
xviii. Rice (Sali)
xix. Turmeric (Haridra)
xx. Cotton (Tula)
xxi. A tuft of Reeds (Saratula)
xxii. Plants as Elucidative of Philosophical or Ethical Ideas

31. Lotus (Kamala) :
i. Day-Blooming Lotus
ii. Night-Blooming Lotus (Kumuda)

32. Metal :
i. Gold (Svarna)
ii. Silver (Rajata)
iii. Copper (Tamra)

33. Jewel (Ratna) :
i. Cat's Eye (Vaidurya)
ii. Crystal (Sphatika)
iii. Pearl (Mani)
iv. Gem (Ratna)

34. Relatives (Sambandhin) :
i. Father (Pitr)
ii. Mother (Matr)
iii. Teacher (Guru)

35. Sages (Rsi) :
i. Brhaspati
ii. Valmiki
iii. Vaaistha
iv. Kapila
v. Dadhica
vi. Angiras
vii. Bhrgu
viii. Atri
ix. Agastya
x. Aurva
xi. Trita
xii. Kaksivat

36. Kings (Raj an) :
i. Yayati
ii. Pururavas
iii. Puru
iv. Sibi
v. Manu
vi. Iksvaku
vii. Bhagiratha
viii. Rantideva
ix. Mandhatr
x. Prthu
xi. Dam-bhodbhava
xii. Khatvanga
xiii. Nabhaga
xiv. Dilipa
xv. Sahas-rarjuna
xvi. Kama
xvii. Krsna
xviii. Arjuna
xix. Bhisma
xx. Ajamidha
xxi. Sasabindu
xxii. Gaya
xxiii. Nrga

37. Other Personal Names :
i. ParaSurama
ii. Hanumat
iii. Valin and Sugriva
iv. Personal Names as Standards of Conjugal Love
v. Savitri

38. Various Phases of Human Life :
i. Witness (Saksin)
ii. Ordinary, Common Folk (Prakrta)
iii. Helpless or Unprotected Person (Anatha)
iv. Intoxicated Person (Malta)
v. A Diseased Person (Vyadhiklista)
vi. Dumb Person (Jadamuka)
vii. Lame Persons, Persons with Crippled Arm (Kuni Pangu), Blind Person
viii. A Disordered, Frantic Person (Unmatta)
ix. One Insane Owing to Demoniac Seizure (Avista)
x. Eunuch (Kliba)
xi. The virtuous (Sukrtin)
xii. The Enemy (Amitra)
xiii. An Unchaste Woman (PumScall)
xiv. Impure Person (Asuci)
xv. A Wicked Person (Nrsamsa)
xvi. A Distressed Person (Arta)
xvii. A Coward (Kspurusa)
xviii. Hungry Persons
xix. Persons Afflicted with heat
xx. Base men (Nica)
xxi. Spectators
xxii. Neutral (Udasina)
xxiii. Caste (Varna)
xxiv. Age (Vayas)
xxv. A Corpse
xxvi. Falsehood (Anrta)
xxvii. Phases of Human Life as Elucidative of Philosophical or Ethical Ideas

39. Philosophical Terms :
i. Soul (Atman)
ii. Indifference to Things of the world (Vair-Agya)
iii. Virtue (Dharma)
iv. The Vedas (Veda)
v. Elements of speech
vi. Five Elements (Panca-mahabhuta)
vii. Sense Organs (Indriya)
viii. Mind (Manas)
ix. Life (Prana)
x. Body (Deha)

40. Material Culture :
i. Cart (Sakata) and its Parts
ii. Ship (Nau) or Raft (Plava)
iii. Swing (Dola)
iv. Iron (Loha)
v. Saw (Krakaca)
vi. Weapons (Sastra) and Machine (Yantra)
vii. Wood (Kastha)
viii. Mirror (Adarsa)
ix. Clothes (Vastra)
x. Painting (Citra)
xi. Garland (Mala)
xii. Ornaments (Alamkara)
xiii. Mark on the Forehead (Tilaka)
xiv. Kettledrum (Dundubhi)
xv. A leather Bag (Drti)
xvi. Leather (Carman)
xvii. Needle (Suci)
xviii. Pot (Ghata)
xix. Banner (Dhvaja)
xx. Puppet (Darumayi Yosa)
xxi. Medicine (Ausadha)
xxii. Pillow (Upadhana)
xxiii. Trap (Vagura)

41. Supernatural Appearances :
i. Golden Trees
ii. An Imaginary Town in (he Sky (Gandhar-Vanagara)
iii. Celestial Car (Vimana)

42. Miscellaneous :
i. Nectar (Amrta)
ii. Poison (Visa)
iii. Seasons (Rtu)
iv. Spring (Vasanta)
v. Food (Ahara)
vi. Perfume (Gandha)
vii. A Post (Sthanu)
viii. Shadow (Chaya)
ix. Pilgrimage Centers (Tirtha)
x. Fog (Nihara)
xi. Anthill (Valmika)
xii. Snow (Hima)
xiii. Success (Siddhi)

43. Malopama

II. METAPHOR (RUPAKA) :
1. Complex Metaphor
i. Tree
ii. Butter and Razor
iii. Boat on a River
iv. River
v. Ocean
vi. Fire
vii. Cloud
viii. Gambling
ix. Palace
x. Gateway of Heaven
xi. The City of Nine Gates
xii. Chariot
xiii. Ornament
xiv. Lamp
xv. Lotus
xvi. Lake
xvii. Lion
xviii. The old Sage

2. Simple Metaphor

III. POETICAL FANCY (UTPREKSA) :
1. Utpreksa of Verbs
2. Utpreksa of Nouns and Adjectives

IV. HYPERBOLE (ATISAYOKTI) :
1. Understatement of the Qualities of Objects of Comparison
2. Presenting Something Unreal or Incongruous
3. Fanciful Overstatement with A pi (Even)

V. INFERENCE FROM CIRCUMSTANCES (ARTHAPATTI)
VI. ANTITHESIS (VIRODHA) :
1. General
2. Ambiguous Antithesis

VII. EXCLUSION BY SPECIFICATION (PARISAMKHYA)
VIII. MISCELLANEOUS FIGURES :
1. Excellence (Vyatireka)
2. Converse (Pratipa)
3. Poetical Doubt (Samdeha)
4. Mistaker (Bhrantiman)
5. Equal Pairing (Tulyayogita)
6. Accompaniment (Sahokti)
7. Poetical Reason (Kavyalinga)
8. Description of Nature (Svabhavokti)
9. Incongruity (Visama)
10. Modal Metaphor (Samasokti)

IX. IDIOMS :
A. IDIOMS IN GENERAL :
1. Human Body :
i. Feet
ii. Hands
iii. Lips and Teeth
iv. Eyes
v. Corners of the Mouth
vi. Back
vii. Marrow of the; Bones

2. Animal World :
i. Lion
ii. Tiger
iii. Elephant
iv. Snake
v. Crow and Jackal
vi. White Crow

3. Miscellaneous :
i. Sesamum Seeds (Tila)
ii. Grass (Trna)
iii. Root
iv. Thorns
v. Sacrificial Objects
vi. Fire mid Javelin
vii. Mountain and Mustard
viii. Mud
ix. Hook
x. River
xi. Needle
xii. Mirror
xiii. Poison
xiv. Pot
xv. Knot
xvi. Wilderness
xvii. Scraping with a Sharp Object

B. IDIOMS IN VERBAL PHRASES :
1. General
2. Periphrases Expressive of Death
3. Expressions for Goodbye

X. FIGURES OF SOUND (SABDSLAMKARA) :
1. Repetition of Consonants (Anuprasa) :
i. Repetition of a Consonant more than once
ii. Repetition of More than one Consonant Once
iii. Repetition of More than one Consonant More than Once
iv. Repetition of Words and Meanings Differing Only in Relation to their Immediate Constituents (Latanuprasa)
v. Rhyme (Antyanuprasa)

2. Chime (Yamaka)
3. Paronomasia (Slesa)
4. Indirect Mode of Expression (Vakrokti)
5. Repetition of Phrases or Words in a Set of Verses :
i. Linkage or Concatenation
ii. Repetition of Similar or Identical Words within Verses
iii. Chiasmus

XI. TECHNIQUES OF ORAL POETRY

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