Author: S M MohsinPublisher: Motilal BanarsidassYear: 2010Language: EnglishPages: 340ISBN/UPC (if available): 9788120808751
Psychology acts as a link between the social and biological sciences. As a social science its subject-matter is of the utmost importance in understanding human actions in society, their behaviour as individuals, as members of various groups. A knowledge of psychology however necessitates a knowledge of the tools of biological sciences as its methodology has been modelled after the biological sciences. Hence a training in laboratory methods is essential for students of psychology.This book combines the salient features of the methodology of experiments in psychology, the concepts of general experiments in psychology, and the advantage of a laboratory manual. It aims at developing in the students the understanding and skill to pose a problem, and to plan and conduct an experiment to answer it. Complete reports of a number of experiments have been given which, though based on hypothetical data, will enable students to realise that every step has a rationale behind it. Accounts of related problems and, in several cases, description of the ways to answer them, supplement the detailed reports. Aware of the importance of group experiments in the world of today, the author has included experiments highlighting some special features of group experiments like selections of sample, design of group experiments and treatment of group data. The author has also taken care to avoid use of costly apparatus to carry out the experiments worked out in the book, depending largely on locally improvised materials. This is an invaluable book for students and teachers of psychology.
I. THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD :1. What is an Experiment2. Exploratory and Confirmatory Experiments3. Dependent and. Independent Variables4. Ways of Manipulating the Independent Variable5. Extraneous Variables6. Experimental Control7. The Design of ExperimentsII. CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS1. Formulation of' the Problem2. The Choice of Design3. Procedure4. Utilization of Data5. Treatment of Result6. Limits of Chance Difference7. Standard Error of Difference8. Critical RatioIII. REPORTING AN EXPERIMENT :1. The Importance of Reporting2. A Model Report : Complex Reaction Time3. Review of the ReportIV. PSYCHOPHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS :1. Psychophysics2. Stimulus Threshold-RL3. Difference Threshold -DL4. Weber's Law5. Fechner's Law6. The Psychophysical Methods7. The Method of Average Error8. The Method of Limit9. Method of Constant StimuliV. ATTENTION :1. Span of Attention or Apprehension2. Fluctuation of Attention3. Doing Two Things at a Time or Division of AttentionVI. PERCEPTION :1. Form Perception2. Space Perception3. Perception of TimeVII. SENSORY-MOTOR LEARNING1. Learning Curves2. The Conditioned Reflex3. Mirror Tracing4. Maze LearningVIII. VERBAL LEARNING :1. Learning Materials2. Methods of Verbal Learning3. Serial Position Effect4. Clustering of Items5. The Method of Paired Associates-PA6. Experiments on Verbal Learning7. Type of Learning Material8. Methods of Learning9. Part and Whole Learning10. Intentional Learning and Incidental Learning11. Verbal Conditioning ISOIX. TRANSFER OF TRAINING :1. Transfer in Sensory-Motor Learning2. Transfer in Verbal Learning3. Backward Association in PA Learning4. Stimulus Generalisation5. Inter-Serial Inhibition or FacilitationX. REMEMBERING AND FORGETTING :1. Methods of Testing Retention2. Experiments on Remembering and Forgetting3. Curve of Forgetting4. Retroactive Inhibition5. Theory of RI6. Proactive7. Inhibition8. ReminiscenceXI. REACTION TIME :1. Simple Reaction Time2. Complex Reaction Time3. RT as a Function of the Aesthetic Value of a Stimulus4. RT as a Function of S-R Compatibility5. Associative Reaction Time6. Clinical Use of the Word Association TestXII. FEELING AND EMOTION1. The Paired Comparison Method2. Expressions of Emotion3. Respiration CurveXIII. WORK AND FATIGUE :1. Work and Practice2. Fatigue3. Ergographic Work4. Psychomotor Work5. Mental Work6. Precision of MovementXIV. MOTIVATION :1. Knowledge of Result2. Effect of Need Tension on Memory3. Effect of Frustration4. Per Ceptual Defense5. Level of AspirationXV. THINKING :1. Problem Solving2. Concept Formation3. The Mediation Process