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Community Natural Resource Management and Poverty in India
Community Natural Resource Management and Poverty in India

Community Natural Resource Management and Poverty in India

by Shashidharan Enarth

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Sage Publications


9789351506522 - Year: 2016 - Pages: 414



Shashidharan Enarth
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Author: Shashidharan Enarth
Jharna Pathak/Several Contributors
Publisher: Sage Publications
Year: 2016
Language: English
Pages: 414
ISBN/UPC (if available): 9789351506522


A comparative analysis of two contrasting strategies in the implementation of Community Natural Resource Management (CNRM) programmes in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh

This book examines whether the introduction of CNRM schemes in rural India made an impact on poverty alleviation. These programmes were implemented in various phases and manners in different states over the last two decades and their comparative performance as well as successes and failures are analysed. Inspired by the Millennial Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2000, the book focuses on participatory irrigation management, watershed development, joint forest management, and inland fishing cooperatives.

This book is indispensable to scholars of development studies, environmental studies, community resource management, and sociology.


In the year 2000, the United Nations, after surveying all the economic, social, health and environmental problems of our planet, announced the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). They agreed on eight goals, the first of which was declared to be the eradication of poverty.' This was of immediate significance to all those concerned about poverty in India, which, going by the World Bank poverty standard of a per capita income of less than US$ 1.25 per day, implied that India contained one-third of the world's poor (2010 figures).

The poor thus formed 42 per cent of the Indian population and lived mostly in rural areas. Despite recent overall increases in India's growth rates and an official downward revision of poverty estimates, the absolute number of rural Indians living below the poverty line is estimated at about 400 million (2010 figures).2 During the two decades leading up to the millennium, a new approach to rural development was introduced in many of the larger Indian states and this in turn gained governmental recognition.

Titled as Community Natural Resource Management (CNRM), it featured the decentralization by government departments of the local management of natural resources to the rural communities most involved in their use. Thus, under the new approach, farmers were to take responsibility for the management of water, forest dwellers for the protection and management of their forests and fishermen for the management of the fisheries on India's inland reservoirs.




1. CNRM in India: The Problem and the Context John R Wood

2. Comparative CNRM: From Concepts to Field Research John R Wood, Shashidharan Enarth and Amita Shah

3. Participatory Irrigation Management in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh: When and How Can It Benefit the Poor? Shashidharan Enarth

4. Resource Management and Poverty in Gujarat’s and Madhya Pradesh’s Inland Fisheries: Hopeful Opportunities and Hard Realities Jharna Pathak

5. Participatory Watershed Development Projects in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh: Do They Impact Poverty? Amita Shah

6. Poverty Reduction and the Community Management of Forests: The Experience of Joint Forest Management Institutions Madhu Verma

7. Conclusion: Comparing CNRM Institutions and Their Impact on Poverty in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh John R Wood

8. CNRM and Poverty in India: The Way Forward John R Wood


References and Select Bibliography


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